I think I need a fifth grade intro to grammar book. (a short prepositional phrase, but without a comma, readers might read outside the air as a phrase). Participles and parenthetical adjectives (and adjectives out of their normal order) are always set off with a comma (or pair of commas) at the beginning of a sentence. A comma splice occurs when two independent clauses are joined together using only a comma. Any suggestions? Patricia. But for dialogue, you’d put the comma inside the quotation mark, the same as in AmE.). Keep writing such kind of information on your page. He’d learned three lessons. Every story I’ve written so far has been picked up for publication. But, not because of the answers I gave. For three days , the teenager alternated swimming as hard as he could, then floating an resting, praying all the while for a miracle. site. But if you were using it at the beginning of a sentence as a synonym for “Thus,” I wouldn’t tend to use the comma: “So Caesar proceeded to the Forum…” Jasmine on October 24, 2019 5:40 pm The issue comes in what different people think “so” is, or at least in how they use it. 1. If you use these words at the beginning of a sentence, put a comma after them. wishing for blogging. Two simple but comma rules. Wanda, without doubt, is the stronger candidate. Thank you! Use an exclamation point when you need to be more emphatic. The only punctuation in the 1,700 word story were periods.) (For BrE this is true for your example. The dependent clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions. Conjunctive Adverbs—Kip Wheeler at cn.edu. A comma comes after an adverb clause only at the beginning of a sentence—not at the end. Writing my own sentences seems like good way to ingrain some of these rules that I struggle with. Shortie loves to roll in the sweet clover when he herds sheep. Nevertheless, I’d forgotten the entire speech. It's about syntax. The rules are different. Excellent post. They can highlight the fact that a reader is only reading and not really living inside the fictional world. issue. A comma between adjectives tells readers that each adjective independently modifies the following noun or pronoun. That way you get practice using your own words with each rule. Third, to buy I’m-sorry gifts only when he’d already apologized. Moreover, the managers agree. Thank you once again for a post that I really needed. Both are correct.). Furthermore,you know it’s true. Does the sentence start your conclusion: Use: finally, in conclusion, in sum, obviously, or another concluding transition. 2. You’re right that quotation marks shouldn’t be used for emphasis—we typically use italics for that. on several of your posts. You passed the entrance exam!”. Look for the introductory word or phrase. AmE—He told me that his favorite song was “Jumpin’ Blue,” and then he sang a few lines. You don’t have to include the comma with short prepositional phrases (three words or fewer). But I almost always hear the comma with infinitive phrases. ~  Transition words such as therefore and indeed are often followed by commas, but they don’t have to be. Of course he isn’t. And if you use an exclamation point, remember to capitalize the first word in the sentence that follows. Because I lost the race, I had to give my brother five dollars. Mos… The sentence adverb isn’t attached to a single adverb, adjective, or verb—it doesn’t need to be physically close to only one particular word—so it usually comes at the beginning of a sentence and is set off by a comma. BrE—He told me that his favorite song was ‘Jumpin’ Blue’, and then he sang a few lines. I hope it proves helpful. I must be doing something right. The rule today that many people get confused about is the rule about putting a comma after a prepositional phrase at the beginning of the sentence. Scott, I’m guessing that almost any grammar book would be helpful. (short prepositional phrase), On Saturday we’ll be going to the movies. Some modern writers are now dropping the comma, but I still like it because it indicates a pause. Rule 1. We use commas for nonessential appositives but not for essential ones. Comma use is tough for many of us. On the other hand, you’ll probably want to order dessert. Just be sure that your sentence adverb is actually modifying the entire sentence and not just one verb or an adjective. Sadly, the hurricane wiped out what was left of the town. A conjunction at the beginning of a sentence is perfectly grammatical for most contemporary readers, although it was deprecated by several generations of schoolmarmish stylists. Answer: Sentence C is correct. Putting those adverbial modifiers at the beginning of a sentence will tend to draw attention to them, especially if they're followed by a comma, and that can sometimes be a bit intrusive or clumsy, but it can also be effective. 3. A number of them are rife Or, she wanted to know, had I left my husband? For example: At 4 o'clock, I'll jump in the river. Let’s look at a handful of uses for commas with elements used at the beginnings of sentences. For the second sentence, the requirement for a comma is not as certain. A sentence adverb—used to express the narrator or viewpoint character’s attitude toward the sentiment conveyed by the sentence—is separated from the rest of the sentence with a comma. With fiction, everything is on the table, as long as you’re effectively communicating your story to the reader. Since there are some great internet resources with lists of transitions, I’ve linked to a few of them rather than duplicating the lists. 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