Leiden: E.J. In the spring months, when the cities of Andalusia are filled with colourful religious parades, the sad and wavering laments of the saeta punctuates these processions. Although situated in Europe, in the 19th century it was common to associate Spain with the Orient because of the Arab domination and its influences on the Spanish culture. They then refined and based this music on notes and scales and, at the same time, developed dancing and singing schools across their lands – the most famous being in Medina and Baghdad. Emil Naumann in his History of Music notes “…we cannot fail….to be struck with the remarkable similarity which the melodies of the Koran bear to the responses and chants of the Catholic liturgy.”. Admiring the trays, boxes, tables and many other inlaid items, I asked in my broken Spanish the craftsman at work, “It’s amazing! This was a golden age or Siglo de Oro particularly in Spanish paintings and sculptures, many of which were produced for the ever-strengthening Church. Society for Ethnomusicology, Inc., pp 1 to 29. It had been some years back, but I had never forgotten that entrancing flamenco evening in the Santa Cruz district of old Seville. Visitors roaming this delightful part of southern Spain searching for these attributes will be able to find them in abundance in Seville, Cordova and Granada – three of Andalusia’s most fascinating cities. The zajal was the colloquial form of the muwashshahat, written and sung in vulgar Arabic. The art form's basic building blocks—sung poetry and music—were borrowed from the Arabs and Berbers who ruled al-Andalus from 711 to 1492, when the Moors were expelled from Spain. Baltimore: J.H. Játiva, a city in eastern Spain, even after the Christian occupation in the 13th and 14th centuries continued to be famous for its musicians and singers. Despite most dictionaries deriving flamenco from the word Flemish, the name is probably a mispronunciation of the Arabic fallah manju (fugitive peasant). The History of Music. Arabic music or Arab music (Arabic: الموسيقى العربية ‎, romanized: al-mūsīqā al-ʿArabīyah) is the music of the Arab world with all its diverse music styles and genres. Islamic Contributions to Civilization. During my many subsequent visits to southern Spain, I often thought of this chance incident in Albaicín. (Vol.I). This last verse was known as a kharja and from it was derived the whole inspiration of the poem. Moorish Spain. London: Faber and Faber, 1974. Under the enlightened Umayyad rulers of al-Andalus, the court musicians al-‘Abbas ibn al-Nasa’i, ‘Alun and Zarqun; Qalam, a Biscayan songstress who was a scholar, an excellent scribe, a historian of poetry and versed in literature; Fadl, an excellent poetess; and the two singing girls Musabi and Mut’a, set the trend for music and song in Arab Spain. Potters in Guadix are famous for their filigree jars, full of ornamental details, inherited from the Nasrid (the last Arab dynasty in Spain) times. The poetry and music of the zajal and muwashshahat also gave rise to the troubadours, from the Arabic tariba – to sing. They evolved into the modern Spanish folk music of our day. The name parado (stopped) comes from the abrupt end of the dance. One of these groups is the Moors, the Arab and Berber Muslims who conquered parts of present-day Spain in the 8th century and lived there for almost 800 years. It is said that when al-Mahdi, one of the last caliphs in Cordova, entertained, the sound of a hundred lutes and a hundred flutes would fill the air. The Alhambra in Granada, the Mesquita of Cordóba, the Alcázar in Seville, and above all, Andalusia’s culture and artisan products, testify to the rich artisan legacy the Arabs bequeathed to Andalusia and to a lesser extent to all of Spain. The quarries at Macael, Olula del Rio, Contoria and Vera, near Almería – the principal concentration of marble in Andalusia – have been mined since Arab times; carpet weaving, a very important industry in Arab al-Andalus, is being revived in Málaga, Marbella and Estepona; and wood carvers, inheriting the art from their Arab ancestors, are now busy making articles for Easter processions and festivals, in many parts of Andalusia. I said to myself: `For instrumental music, nothing could be more perfect. One of the principle contributors to Spanish music was Ziryab, one of the greatest teachers of musicians and singers of all times. Through the years, only the language and instrument have changed. Yet, even in this modern version, it was an inspiring extrava­ganza – an exhibition of moving entertainment. As the Christian population accepted the lyric models of the Muslims, Arab songs grew more popular throughout the peninsula. The girl who was singing sat apart from the others, and held her listeners spellbound. A little further on, the same Arab-type kilns, used for at least eight centuries, are still baking pottery in Almería and at the nearby towns of Alhabia, Albox, Nijar and Sorbas. London & New York: Johnson Reprint Co., 1964. The South of Spain. From the troubadours and their Arabic songs, the serenading of Spanish lovers was born. During this period the poems of many famous poets were set to music and sung by both the Bedouins of the desert and the well trained dancing girls in the homes of the wealthy. Closely associated with the haunting music of the Arabs are the fiery, dances of Spain the most well-known being the flamenco. I saw a large garden with about twenty people in the centre, seated in a row, with sweets, fruits and drinks before them. We can trace our ancestry to Syria. Today, the old Arab embossing techniques are still in use. The tile craftsmen of Triana, near Seville, as in the Arab era, are renowned for producing tiles in exquisite colours. But the haunting melodies of Arab music were not lost. More than the songs, the haughty dances with their sensuous lure that stir a wild feeling in the audience, are the main attractions of a flamenco performance. A lot is written on Arabic influence in Spanish music. These two types of song and music were widely sung and appreciated by both the Muslims and Christians in all parts of the Iberian Peninsula and spread throughout the Arabic-speaking world of his time. Throughout this period and long thereafter, Arab-Andalusian music and poetry belonged not only to the wealthy but also to the workers and peasants. In that age even the churchmen were delighted with Moorish song and dance. The history of Spanish music continued to evolve with the dawning of the Renaissance period. The zajal and muwashshahat type of verse and song were the most famous, the creation of the muwashshah attributed to Muqaddam ibn Mu’afa al-Qabri (born in Cabra near Cordova – d.circa 900). And, until now, this type of song and music continues to be sung by famous singers across the whole of the modern Arab world. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1972. Al-Yamani’s description of this music and song was not unique to Malaga. Even in its modernized form the flamenco still had its enchantment. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1976. Sarabande, originally, a dance considered disreputable in 16th-century Spain, and, later, a slow, stately dance that was popular in France.Possibly of Mexican origin or perhaps evolved from a Spanish dance with Arab influence that was modified in the New World, it was apparently danced by a double line of couples to castanets and lively music. In fact, the culture of the Spain was also influenced, as the Moors introduced several cultural i… This enraged him but one night his feeling for the music and singing, coming from the surrounding buildings, changed. In Moorish Spain it was later modified by Greek music and song giving birth to the Arab-Andalusian type melodies. When the Spaniards occupied Granada, the last city held by the Moors, Arab music and singing did not die but actually flourished. I saw the same products being produced in Damascus!” The man looked up at me and smiled, “It’s not strange! Do you plan on being with family in person this Thanksgiving? Flamenco, form of song, dance, and instrumental (mostly guitar) music commonly associated with the Andalusian Roma (Gypsies) of southern Spain. Today, in Egypt and Lebanon, zajal continues to be a popular folk art. Later Arabic was abandoned for the languages of southern Europe, but the Arabic format remained. According to travellers from other Arab lands, Muslim Spain, in that enlightened era, was a land filled with poets and musicians. It is evident that these three genres of music interacted. In later centuries these cantigas were to have a great impact on all European music. The muwashshahat were written and sung in classical Arabic but the last verse always ended with two or four lines written in the Romance or the aljamiado language of the Christians and summarised the entire meaning of the poem. Nevertheless, as to its name and origin it is a different story. The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain. However, as time wore on and the Islamic world was established on a permanent basis, the love and appreciation of poetry and music surged forward, incorporating the old and formulating the new. ... "Arabic letters, Arabic phrases. Al-Mu’tamid, the greatest of the ‘Abbadids, made his court hospitable to poets and literary men and women. The dancers’ flaunting looks, rhythmical punctuation of the feet, flashing eyes and movements full of grace, all have their roots in the lands of the East and North Africa. Spanish Music [the Canary Islands are not show in this map] ... (música andalusí) is the term use to define the classical Arabic music of Medieval Al-Andalus, which was the name given to Muslim-occupied Spain as well as current North African classical Arabic music. The Moors in Spain and Portugal. As she sang a verse, I learned it, until I knew quite a number. The jaleo, which is another intricate component of the flamenco, has a strong connection with the Arabs living in the countries edging the Arabian Gulf. Under his influence, the traditions of Medina and the classical music school of al-Mawsili in Baghdad whose pupil he had been took root in Spain and flourished. In the same manner as in most Spanish places of entertainment, to appeal to tourists, the authentic flamenco had been transformed into a somewhat modern commercial spectacle. Their production of large bowls, casseroles, ewers, figurines, jars, pitchers and plates are much in demand for decorative purposes and in the tourism industry. Chejne, A.G., Muslim Spain – Its History and Culture. Read, J. In addition, the recitations that punctuate the dance are no different than the poems with which many Arab singers include in their songs. This type of verse did not disappear for today in Egypt and Lebanon, zajal continues to be a popular folk art. The prototype of this most Spanish of all musical instruments was introduced into Spain by the famous Arab musician Ziryab in the 9th century and it evolved to become the modern guitar. Seman, K .1. In flamenco today, the guitar gives impetus to the dance and the guitar player is the hardest worker -the unsung hero. To cite Enrique Sordo in his Moorish Spain: “….an inner room in an Andalusian tavern; glasses of golden wine, a guitar; a voice…. Through usage in Spanish, felagmengu was transformed into flamenco. It was purely instrumental, without the human voice. In Moorish Spain it was later modified by Greek music and song giving birth to the Arab-Andalusian … All this came about, in the main, as a result of the 900 years the Arabs were in Spain – first as conquerors then as conquered. It is also clear to hear for example in the works from Isaac Albéniz, Manuel de Falla and Joaquín Rodrigo. Some historians indicate that this epithet was likely applied to Andalusian persecuted farmers who fled to the mountains. Encouraging experimentation and innovations in musical styles and instruments he came to establish the unique Arab musical tradition of Andalusia. The beat of the rapid handclapping in flamenco is a carbon copy of the clapping in the folk melodies and dances of the Arabian Peninsula. Each of Arab Spain’s city states became noted for excelling in one or the other of the arts, but Seville outshone them all. But research by honest scholars, in the last century, has established that not only measured music but the popular Spanish music and, in fact, the folk music of all South­west Europe, was taken from Arab-Andalusian sources. Contrary to stereotypical western belief, Arabia was not simply a land of barren deserts, but rather a region where towns and cities flourished. Perhaps the easiest way to see this influence in Spanish is in the simple words spoken every day. The artform’s basic building blocs – sung poetry and music – were borrowed from the Arabs and Berbers who … From that point on, the Catholic Church began its heavy influence on Spanish politics, history, customs and … The canas, jaleo, malagueña, polos, and tiranas of the flamenco; the zarabanda danced in Spain during the 16th century; the zorongo dance with its Andalusian music; the jota from the Arabic khata (to step); the sequidillas; the fandango; the folias; the sevillanas; and the bulerias, all have been influenced to some extent by the music, song and dance of the Moors. Which make Andalusia unique in Europe, but the haunting music of the outcomes! Entrancing flamenco evening in the cantigas de Santa María compiled by Alfonso Wise... Combined a masterpiece which defuses an aura of the land producing tiles in exquisite colours West has been influenced the... Been overthrown in damascus, was re-established in the homes but also on Spanish! 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