Table 6.2 shows densities of the most used biopolymers compared to some of the main petroleum-based polymers. The two other biopolymers found in plants are hemicelluloses and lignin; see Fig. The main degradation mechanism of biodegradable PU is hydrolysis, in which the ester of soft segments and the urethane of hard segments hydrolyze [107]. Special thanks to all the lecturers and students (past and present) who've made this video possible! Figure 13.1. The first educational institution in Singapore to leverage the Problem-based Learning approach for all its diploma programmes, Republic Polytechnic (RP) has seven schools and one academic centre offering forty-two diplomas in Applied Science, Engineering, Management and Communication, Events and Hospitality, Infocomm, … The resulting cross-linked polymer would be acid-labile and this strategy has been used, for example, to fabricate colloid or network systems that are designed to release a drug-active substance [18–23]. Significant advances in organic synthesis and characterisation techniques have yielded synthetic biodegradable polymers with well-defined, three-dimensional structures. Synthetic polymers are designed to retain the biocompatibility of naturally occurring polymers and overcome physicochemical limitations. This chapter is focused on polyacetals, which undergo hydrolysis at acidic pH values. Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS) UK. Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer and is the largest organic carbon source on earth. Major research efforts have focused on the design of linkers that are stable during transport, yet allow sustained drug release at the appropriate site. The spinning process is reported to reduce the crystallization temperature of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) from 108 to 77 °C and poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) from 68 to 49 °C. program in Biomolecular Science lets you join in their efforts to improve the world. Cellulose is synthesized by plants and makes up a large portion of a plant’s chemical structure. Such cross-linkers are used in relatively low proportion compared to the monomers within the polymer main chain. Does the life-saving work of doctors and healthcare professionals inspire you? The cardiovascular, neurological and respiratory systems are emphasized in this … The general method is to incorporate natural biodegradable materials, including starch and cellulose into soft segments [97,98], or choosing synthetic biodegradable oligodiols such as polylactides, polycaprolactones, and polyhydroxyalkanoates [61,99,100]. Another useful thermal characterization technique is thermal compression in which a polymer fabric or biotextile is subjected to different loads at different temperatures. The former one has a faster degradation rate in general [2]. 3 Trinity Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Trinity Biomedical Science Institute, Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing, School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. in the early 1980s, mimics the bone composition as inorganic fillers with organic matrix [19]. Similarly cross-linked UHMWPE or incorporation of additives like vitamin E to UHMWPE matrix has been used for total hip and knee replacements due to its improved wear resistance, thereby protecting the implant from wear-mediated osteolysis over conventional UHMWPE [11,21]. Hydrophobicity gives rise to poor wetting properties that complicate the application of adhesives, inks, or paints, generate friction, and render such surfaces prone to fogging and biological fouling. Individuals who enjoy science … Cal Poly San Luis Obispo Biological & Biomedical Sciences Bachelor’s Program. Since the development of these first polyacetals, other commodity polyacetals have been developed including Ultraform®, a trioxane copolymer; Tenac®, a formaldehyde homopolymer; Tarnoform®, a trioxane-dioxolane copolymer; and Jupital®, a trioxane copolymer. The study of biomedical sciences … Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven fiber scaffolds have been prepared for tissue engineering by thermal compression and simultaneous characterization. This is because they are commonly hydrophilic materials, and their polymer chains present intramolecular interactions through hydrogen bonds, causing more compact molecular arrangements. B.Sc. This chapter describes prominent challenges and new directions of hemocompatibility and specifically anticlotting biomaterials research. First, it will provide an introduction to the typical monomers used to synthesize polyelectrolytes, polyampholytes, and betaine polymers, along with an overview of some of the polymerization and coating approaches. From: Hemocompatibility of Biomaterials for Clinical Applications, 2018, Victor H. Pino-Ramos, ... Emilio Bucio, in Biopolymer Grafting, 2018. Biodegradable PUs can be synthesized by introducing biodegradable content into the backbone. Biotechnology is a broad term that can be defined as the application of modern techniques and technologies to the life sciences. However, protocols that rely on elimination of water continue to be used to prepare especially, when release of the aldehyde is required [27]. Diploma in Biomedical Science was launched in 2003. Immune responses, however, could still occur for long-term applications [22,23]. Additionally, solubilising groups (i.e. Electronic address: Tg of a polymer is related to its biodegradability. The B.S. Figure 13.3. To do a biomedical science degree, you will usually need five GCSEs (A-C) including maths and English, plus three A levels, preferably including biology and chemistry. Protein adsorption onto polymers used in biomedical devices initiates an uncontrolled cascade of cellular responses that can interfere with the short- and long-term viability of medical treatment. Work with professionalism and high ethical standards as biomedical engineers in the life science industry, including pharmaceutical and medical devices, or in the healthcare industry, including … In the earlier development of biomedical polymers much attention was focused on conceiving PUs of high biostability. Additionally, the extent of microphase separation between hard segments and soft segments may affect the permeability of water or the attachment of enzymes [114], consequently having an influence on the degradation rate. Biotechnology What is biotechnology? poly(ethylene-glycol)) and/or targeting moieties (e.g. VIEW ALL Where would you like to study in Singapore? However, certain species of fungi are capable of degrading lignin [12]. Conjugation of synthetic polymers to drug molecules through predetermined cleavable bonds permits drug release at target sites and protects unstable moieties. The clinical-based curriculum was comprehensive coupled with a plethora of well-designed practical sessions providing us with a strong foundation in the biomedical sciences and laboratory competencies. So, what is it like … Stimuli-responsive polymers have been thoroughly reviewed [5–7] and the use of a degradable element that is susceptible to acid hydrolysis has been examined as the responsive component within hydrogels or colloids. This course is designed to provide students with a broad understanding of the scientific basis of human health and disease, covering basic aspects of cell … Furthermore, since hard segments in PU reside in hard microdomains and are less accessible, soft segments often degrade faster than hard segments [25]. Anuradha Subramaniam, Swaminathan Sethuraman, in Natural and Synthetic Biomedical Polymers, 2014. Protein Linked to Cancer Acts as a Viscous Glue in Cell Division Aliphatic isocyanates have been proven to have degradation products of low toxicity by in vitro and in vivo studies [102,103]. Hemicellulose is very hydrophilic and is composed of multiple polysaccharides of 5- and 6-carbon ring sugars with branched pendant groups [10]. There are more specific disciplines, including epidemiology, biomedical engineering, and biotechnology. Interest in these types of polymeric systems has also been growing because of their similarity to natural biological macromolecules such as proteins (Alfrey, Morawetz, Fitzgerald, & Fuoss, 1950). Biodegradable polymers are liable to hydrolysis under physiological conditions due to the presence of hydrolytically and/or enzymatically susceptible functional groups (e.g. 10425. The main mechanism has been suggested to be nonenzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis [61]. Cellulose is a hydrophilic linear polymer consisting of D-anhydroglucose (C6H11O5) repeat units containing three hydroxyl groups with the repeat units joined by β-1,4 ether linkages at C1 and C4 positions (see Figs. M.T. Thus, degradable polymers were investigated as sutures or adhesives in wound management, pins and rods in orthopedic devices, stents for cardiovascular diseases, and void fillers after tooth extraction. The degradation rate of PU thus can vary over a broad range. Check with individual course providers. Such disciplines as medical microbiology, clinical virology, clinical epidemiology, genetic epidemiology, and biomedical engineering are medical sciences. Though these thermal parameters are not directly related to the biocompatibility of the polymers, they are inevitable in deciding the processing conditions to convert a natural or synthetic biomedical polymer into the final implant or device. Usually, a biomedical scientist, or microbiologist, will focus on a certain area of science, such as: However, the distillation of methanol is viable as evidenced by the use of 2,2-dimethoxypropane as a surrogate for acetone to make polyketals [28]. However, the vinyl ether moiety in monomers such as 7 must still be protected from hydrolysis, and as will be seen, the approach in Figure 13.2a is more flexible and has been followed to prepare different polyacetals for potential biomedical use [23,31,34]. Alfred Rudin, Phillip Choi, in The Elements of Polymer Science & Engineering (Third Edition), 2013. A strategy to avoid potential toxicity due to the excessive generation of aldehyde by-products includes using a macromonomer with a single acetal function, which when polymerized will give a polymer with a single degradable acetal element in the main chain. The course never failed to satisfy my passion for science as it offered me more than my expectations. About 67% of these graduates were women and the other 33% were men. Well-known hydrolytically degradable polymers developed or being developed for biomedical used include homo- and copolymers of polyamides (usually derived from amino acids), polyesters, polyanhydrides, poly(ortho ester)s, poly(amido amines), and poly(β-amino esters). Densities of Main Biopolymers and Nonbiodegradable Polymers, K. Amoako, R. Gbyli, in Hemocompatibility of Biomaterials for Clinical Applications, 2018. Cellulose (top), hemicelluloses (middle), and one configuration of lignin (bottom). However, the focus of this chapter is on biomedical applications of these polymeric systems, with a particular emphasis on polyelectrolytes and zwitterionic polymer systems that are responsive to environmental cues. Efforts to develop polyacetals for potential biomedical applications have increased for several reasons. Their lifetimes are thus limited to hours and days due to clot formation. To avoid the need to remove a small, protic molecule, Heller [29] in 1980 showed that polyacetals could be easily prepared from divinyl ethers 4 and diols 5 (Figure 13.2a). The hemiacetal intermediate 2 is hydrolytically labile to both base and acid, but the resulting acetal product 3 is only labile to hydrolysis at acidic pH values. The programme presents an in-depth study of modern biology, with courses ranging from bioinformatics to biochemistry, genetics and cellular molecular biology. Commodity polyacetals are often produced by addition polymerization through a carbonyl double bond (e.g., formaldehyde) and the terminal hydroxyls must be end-capped [24], often using an anhydride to inhibit depolymerization of the final polymer. This Guide is designed to help users to locate and access Library resources / services related to the subject: Medical Laboratory or Biomedical Sciences. Upon a few years of graduation, the PUPR Biomedical Engineering graduates are expected to: 1. Recombinant DNA technology is used in agricultural and biomedical research, pharmaceutical development and production, bioremediation, industrial … Sometimes, the polymer processing technique itself induces changes in thermal properties. Formation of an acetal/ketal 3 starting from an aldehyde/ketone 1 in the presence of an alcohol and acid. Based on the molecular weight, versatile biomedical polymer, polyethylene, is classified as low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and UHMWPE (Figure 18.1a). have improved the mechanical properties like stiffness and hardness by the combination of alumina particles with hydroxylapatite in HDPE matrix for load-bearing hard tissue applications such as the bone, teeth, and joints [20]. Biomedical polymers have and still continue to play an important role in how we support and treat patients with various diseases through their use in tissue and blood interacting medical devices and drug delivery systems. All 45 units must be acceptable for graduate credit and in accordance with Graduate Guidelines of the Biological Sciences Department. Mechanistically, acetal/ketal formation in these conditions yields a hemiacetal intermediate 2 and a mole of water. The degradation rate of PUs can be easily adjusted through selecting the appropriate monomers when synthesizing the materials, including changing the chemical structures of soft segments [61] and hard segments [25], and the molecular weight [110], crystallinity [111], hydrogen bonding [112], and hydrophobicity of monomers [113]. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Through the comprehensive practical sessions and challenging Final Year Project, I have grown to become more optimistic and resilient from the failures I have faced. I definitely enjoyed and missed the times spent in SP, be it the mind-blowing lectures by enthusiastic DBS lecturers, or the fun-filled moments spent together with my friends. Our recent work showed that biodegradable waterborne PU consisting of PCL diol and a second oligodiol may have different degradation rates depending on the composition, as shown in Figure 5.6. Anuradha Subramaniam, Swaminathan Sethuraman, in Natural and Synthetic Biomedical Polymers, 2014. Discover how Biomedical Science and Biomedical Engineering will meet the healthcare needs of tomorrow. Removal of the water formed during reaction can be difficult to achieve during a polymerization reaction in an effort to obtain high-molecular-weight polyacetal. In the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis, as the name implies, the hydrolysis is catalyzed by a specific kind of enzyme, while nonenzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis occurs by contact with body fluid or water. This more simplified approach precludes the need to use an exact stoichiometric equivalence of a diol(s) that is of sufficient purity required to obtain polymers with sufficiently high molecular weights (e.g., greater than ~ 10,000 g/mol). Hons. Hydrolytic reactions can be classified into two types, enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis and nonenzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis [108,109]. BE A HOTSHOT IN THE BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE INDUSTRY. Level 3.1 Capstone Project. In explaining physiological mechanisms operating in pathological processes Polyelectrolytes and zwitterionic polymers have many industrial applications, including cosmetics, advanced separations, and water treatment (Kudaibergenov, 2002; McCormick, 2000). Polyacetals that have been examined for biomedical applications are often prepared by step or condensation polymerizations. For pursuing this course, a student must complete the final examination of class 10th with Mathematics and Science as compulsory subjects from any recognized board. The content of cellulose in plants varies from 90% in cotton to 40–50% in wood. Biomedical Science is all about the science that ‘saves lives’ – from the research activities for knowledge and application in the life sciences and bio-pharmaceutical industries, to medical testing for diagnosis, management and prevention Despite the fact that in the first week macrophages and foreign body giant cells attached to the surface of the material, they tended to decrease in number as the degradation continued [101]. Table 6.2. If a STAT course is chosen, Electives must include 3 units taken within the Biological Sciences Department at Cal Poly in order to meet the program requirement of 32 units. When polyacetals are prepared by acid catalysis, it is important to remove or neutralize any residual acid to ensure the polymer is stable enough to isolate and for storage. DSC data also provide information about the spinnability of PLA/PGA blends as a function of the homopolymer ratio. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Engineering polymers, biomedical plastics and other polymer systems are contacted with water, aqueous salt solution and water vapor for every day functions and after disposal. THE World Ranking: 47. HAPEX™ (hydroxyapatite/HDPE composite), developed by Bonfield et al. The thickness, pore size, and distribution can be monitored at each condition to prepare ideal scaffolds for tissue engineering. Biomedical Science Course Medallist 2018 All Eights (Singapore) Gold Medal recipient, Best viewed using Internet Explorer 10 and above, latest 2 versions of Mozilla Firefox, Safari and Google Chrome, Joint Polytechnic Admissions Exercise (JPAE), Other Scholarships & Sponsorships for Polytechnic Studies, Keeping in Touch with SP after Graduation, COVID-19 Announcement - SP Service Providers, Medical Technology – Medical testing for diagnosis and management of human diseases, Cardiac Technology – Cardiac functions testing for diagnosis and intervention of heart related diseases, Biotechnology - Focuses on life sciences that exploit biological processes of living organisms to improve the quality of human life, Internship at top-notch laboratories including A*STAR institutes and top-ranked overseas universities, Training partnership with the National Heart Centre Singapore for Cardiac Technology specialisation provides an authentic learning experience, Head-start to a career in an MNC: Internship at multinational biopharmaceutical companies, Opportunity to expand interests through elective modules in Forensic Biology, Cytogenetics or Introductory Pharmacology. Electrospinning is a process for preparing for polymer fibers from viscous solutions and melts. Many biomedical polymers contain charged moieties, and the presence and location of these charged regions play an essential role in the biological response to devices that contain or are coated by these polymers. Also, the fruitful Internship experience at A*STAR has widened my horizon in the biomedical field and allowed me to grow interest in cancer research. These polymers can have a positive, negative, or neutral charge depending on their composition. Lignin has been deemed the limiting step in the degradation of wood and plant fibers. Some aspects of these inherent characteristics were addressed a few years later in the early 1980s when the preparation of polyacetals was described using a single (A-B) monomer 7 comprised of a vinyl ether and a hydroxyl moiety that could be polymerized to give a polyacetal [30] (Figure 13.2b). Diploma in Biomedical Science … bioerode). 13.3. However, nondegradable polymers may require removal or further treatment after introduction into the body. In the 2018-2019 academic year, 330 students earned a bachelor's degree in biological and biomedical sciences from Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. Subjects that are taught in this Biomedical engineering are both the medical and engineering subjects. Due to this, the school was ranked #568 out of all colleges and universities that offer this degree. Uhrich, D. Abdelhamid, in Biosynthetic Polymers for Medical Applications, 2016. Level 1.1 Engineering Mathematics 1. In the case of thermal processing, the moisture must be removed to avoid heat-induced hydrolysis [72]. Lignin provides plant tissue and individual fibers with compressive strength and stiffens the cell wall of the fibers to protect polysaccharides, cellulose, and hemicelluloses from chemical and physical damage [11]. Homopolymers derived from formaldehyde and copolymers have been produced (Mn = 20,000-100,000) [25] with the uncapped homopolymer first being prepared by Staudinger in the 1920s. Biotechnology - Focuses on life sciences that exploit biological processes of living organisms to improve the quality of human life. Small amounts of water or alcohol, in the presence of residual acid, will result in polymer degradation, so it can be difficult to obtain the desired molecular weight characteristics reproducibly. Finally, the chapter will conclude with a summary of the future outlook for these polymers in biomedical applications. Such systems are often explored as a means to alter favorably the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of a biologically active molecule (e.g., drug and siRNA) at an acidic pH value [8]. A poly(lactide-co-caprolactone)-based PU was developed and implanted into the subcutaneous tissues of rats for 26 weeks and New Zealand white rabbits for two and a half years. Bernards, in Switchable and Responsive Surfaces and Materials for Biomedical Applications, 2015. This synthetic route allows copolymerization with two or more diols (or divinyl ethers) as a means to vary polymer properties. Environmental Biomedical Science Degrees Biomedical environmental science is the study of applied sciences that applies natural and formal science to research and develop technology to use within healthcare, public health, and environmental health and welfare. K.-C. Hung, ... S.-H. Hsu, in Advances in Polyurethane Biomaterials, 2016. The admission process for pursuing this course is … Favourites. A new program in Biotechnology and Health Economics at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute will equip students destined for a science-based career with the quantitative and modeling knowledge in economics needed to succeed in industry and consulting. Such hydrolysis can lead to oligomerization of the divinyl ether. Cal Poly also offers Blended Programs (BMS) to transition from undergraduate (BS) to a graduate standing (MS). Anne M. Mayes, Shanmugasundaram Sivarajan, in Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, 2017. Biodegradability and bioerodibility are often desirable characteristics for controlled drug delivery approaches. K.E. Biomedical Science Degrees Differ from Country to Country. ... You will also gain an overview of biomedical engineering. Progression pathway from Diploma — Bachelor's Honours Degree Progression to Medical Education — Graduates of the BSc (Hons) Biomedical Science … Nondegradable biomedical polymers were developed to meet medical needs such as tissue-engineered constructs and implants. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the technique used to determine the thermal parameters mentioned earlier. Several excellent reviews have recently been published that describe the broad field of degradable biomedical polymers [9,10]. These applications take advantage of the charge distribution throughout the underlying polymeric structure. Lectures were taught in preparation for the challenges in the real clinical world. Nanyang Polytechnic Singapore. For blood-contacting devices, their surface interactions with blood mostly lead to blood coagulation, inflammation, device failure, and patient complications. Biodegradation can result in polymer backbone scission or cleavage of water-soluble side chains. To overcome these limitations, methods are being pursued by which surface hydrophilicity can be introduced into inherently hydrophobic polymers via amphiphilic copolymers. Then our Diploma in Biomedical Engineering gives you the skills to design, develop and produce medical devices and instruments for the ever-evolving medical technology and healthcare … Director: Clement Ng Editor: Lim Yu Jie. Polyampholyte polymers have also been further broken down into two subcategories. Program Educational Objectives. Lignin is an amorphous and highly complex cross-linked molecule with aliphatic and aromatic constituents [10]. Fan ChongyueBiomedical Science Course Medallist 2019All Eights (Singapore) Gold Medal recipient. Polyacetals can be prepared relatively easily without the requirement of overly stringent drying conditions, which are often necessary for poly(ortho esters), for example. The degradation by-products from acetal hydrolysis do not include an acid as is the case for polyanhydrides, polycarbonates, or polyesters, so there is no acid-driven autocatalysis during polyacetal degradation. Utilizing two monomers such as a diol and a divinyl ether to make polyacetal has subsequently been followed by others [31–33], but the inherent limitation of this approach to achieve high-molecular-weight polymer is the need to ensure both monomers are highly pure and used accurately at 1:1 stoichiometry. The term polyacetal as used here also includes polyketals. During the 2018-2019 academic year, Worcester Polytechnic Institute handed out 56 bachelor's degrees in biological and biomedical sciences. An acetal (e.g., 3; Figure 13.1) can be prepared by the equilibrium reaction of two equivalents of an alcohol and one equivalent of a compound possessing an aldehyde (or ketone to generate a ketal). Polyelectrolytes are polymers that are composed of a single type of charged monomer subunit, and therefore the overall polymer is either positively or negatively charged. California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo offers Master’s Degree Programs in all departments, Graduate Certificate Programs, and Professional Certificate Programs. Clots, however halts this flow and causes the devices to fail. ... which is an essential foundation to bridge science and engineering. Biomedical polymers that undergo hydrolytic degradation at mild acidic pH values may have some advantage for use in regions of low pH within the body (e.g., gastrointestinal tract) or where there are acidic pH gradients, e.g., endocytic pathway, within malignant tissue, or sites of infection. Blend solution containing 25% PLA and 75% PGA exhibited significantly low crystallinity compared to other ratios and was accompanied by a decrease in spinnability [7]. (a) Polyacetals 6 are prepared using two monomers, a divinyl ether 4 and a diol 5 [29]. Among these, HDPE and UHMWPE have gained much attention for the use of biomaterials due to chemical inertness, mechanical strength, limited tissue reaction, and biostability [16]. FOR POLYTECHNIC GRADUATES. It prepares students for a wide variety of careers in such fields as biomedical, for teaching, for certification as an Associate Ecologist, Fisheries Biologist, or Associate Wildlife Biologist. Preparation of acetal using vinyl ethers. Today, a wide variety of blood-contacting devices provide the means for the diagnosis, treatment, and support of life until organ transplantation. biodegrade) or solubilise (i.e. This degree program offers students a broad education in biology, from molecules to ecosystems. Most of the contents are relevant to both UGs & PGs. Opposite to this strategy, biodegradable PUs were designed to provide short-term support in the human body and to degrade into small molecules excreted from the body without having to be taken out by surgery [96]. Notably, synthetic polymers provide unique advantages to overcome the limitations of small drug molecules as well as macromolecules (proteins, oligonucleotides, and antibodies). The diol monomer, especially those derived from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), can retain small amounts of water. Figure 5.6. Concerning chain extenders, there is current research to introduce biological peptides such as Arg–Gly–Asp–Ser (RGDS) [104] or amino acid-based chain extenders (phenylalanine-based [105] or l-cystine-based [106]) into hard segments of PU. Biodegradable PUs can be processed into various products such as freeze-dried foams [67], electrospun fibers [115], and 3D-printed scaffolds [68], by the use of solvent or heat. Use on the order of months is however needed for many of these devices including vascular grafts, catheters, artificial lungs, extracorporeal circulation circuits, and dialysis membranes, which rely on the free flow of blood over their surfaces. The density will be determined by the crystallinity of the polymer, structure, functional groups, and thermal history. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Hemocompatibility of Biomaterials for Clinical Applications, 2018, Radiation Grafting of Biopolymers and Synthetic Polymers, Victor H. Pino-Ramos, ... Emilio Bucio, in, Improving the hemocompatibility of biomedical polymers, Hemocompatibility of Biomaterials for Clinical Applications, Natural and Synthetic Biomedical Polymers, Anne M. Mayes, Shanmugasundaram Sivarajan, in, Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, Environmentally responsive polyelectrolytes and zwitterionic polymers, Switchable and Responsive Surfaces and Materials for Biomedical Applications, Alfrey, Morawetz, Fitzgerald, & Fuoss, 1950, Biodegradable and bioerodible polymers for medical applications, Biosynthetic Polymers for Medical Applications, Hierarchical Characterization of Biomedical Polymers, Meera Parthasarathy, Swaminathan Sethuraman, in, The Elements of Polymer Science & Engineering (Third Edition), Biomedical Applications of Nondegradable Polymers, Anuradha Subramaniam, Swaminathan Sethuraman, in.